The rapid development of information technology in modern society has promoted the emergence and progress of the e-commerce industry. At this stage of the market economy system, cross-border e-commerce can quickly adapt to the market environment of each country and meet the requirements of the development of private enterprises, thus being favored by private enterprises. Cross-border e-commerce is not only able to improve the efficiency of commodity logistics, but also to continuously improve the economic growth of private enterprises. But in the real development process, private enterprises often face the problem of how to choose cross-border e-commerce logistics channels. Cross-border e-commerce mainly refers to the sale and transportation of goods from different regions and countries through the network electronic information system, so as to achieve the business activities of expanding the consumption space.
In the process of this link involves more content, such as cross-border credit payment, customs clearance and commodity inspection and the choice of logistics channels, etc., the most important of which is to achieve safe and fast delivery through cross-border e-commerce logistics. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of each logistics channel, on this basis, choose the logistics channels that meet their actual situation, in order to continuously improve the economic benefits of private enterprises.
Online shopping has become a popular consumption method, cross-border e-commerce industry is developing rapidly, and cross-border logistics is an important part of it. In the current situation, the expansion of cross-border e-commerce scale and speed is obviously faster than that of cross-border logistics, and there is a problem of inconsistent development pace between the two. The article proposes that this problem can be effectively solved by building a fourth-party logistics platform and introducing a shared overseas warehouse model. The article proposes that the development benefits of cross-border logistics can be effectively solved by building a fourth-party logistics platform and introducing a shared overseas warehouse model, thus promoting the long-term development of our economy. In recent years, China’s cross-border e-commerce has entered a stage of rapid development and has become a new trend and a new growth point in the development of foreign trade. Cross-border logistics serves the cross-border e-commerce industry and provides a solid foundation for the stable development of cross-border e-commerce, and the two are mutually complementary and mutually constraining. While providing conditions for the development of cross-border e-commerce, cross-border logistics also promotes the improvement of its own logistics and transportation system. However, the existing cross-border logistics system has been unable to meet the needs of cross-border e-commerce, which has seriously restricted the development of cross-border e-commerce. Therefore,,, safe, fast, low-cost and easy to supervise cross-border e-commerce logistics operation mode is a strong support for the sustainable and stable development of cross-border e-commerce.
1 The main dilemma faced in the process of integration of cross-border e-commerce and logistics The rapid development of cross-border e-commerce in China has also generated a series of problems, mainly in the following aspects:
1.1 The logistics cost is too high According to the trade standard to calculate, in the total expenditure of the transaction process, the logistics cost accounts for 30% to 40% in general, but the logistics cost of cross-border e-commerce is obviously higher than this average. First of all, logistics services and logistics costs follow the law of benefit backwardness, and there is a contradiction of mutual loss and gain between the functional elements of logistics due to the interconnection between various costs. Logistics system consists of seven functional elements, each independent element can be realized, but from an overall perspective, individual elements are, the overall logistics cost but not necessarily, this is the benefit backlash of the functional elements in the logistics system. Generally speaking, reducing the quality and level of service can directly reduce logistics costs, but it will make after-sales problems increase, labor costs increase, and affect the reputation of the enterprise, resulting in the overall interests of both users and enterprises are damaged. Since the contradiction between these two is in line with the law of backlash of benefits, it is meaningless to emphasize cost reduction, and how to reduce logistics costs while maintaining the existing level of cross-border e-commerce logistics services is the major problem faced by enterprises.
1.2 The difference of logistics infrastructure restricts the development of the current cross-border e-commerce development is also subject to the infrastructure differences of the logistics transport roads in each country, and the development of logistics facilities and equipment in some developing countries lags behind, which leads to difficulties in connecting logistics enterprises in the process of transshipment. For example, China’s railroad gauge is the standard gauge 1435mm used, about 60% of the world’s countries have adopted this standard. But in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam, Thailand and other countries using a narrow gauge of 1000mm, India and other countries are using a wide gauge of 1676mm. As a neighboring country bordering with, this has largely hindered the development of cross-border railroad transport and affected the capacity of railroad transport. On the other hand, the number of direct routes to other less developed regions in China is very small except for some regions with close economic and cultural contacts, which must be transshipped after stopping in other countries. The loading and unloading handling in the transit process will increase the transportation cost, and there is also a need to line up for transit when there are too many goods in transit, which will also increase the time cost, and all these factors will directly restrict the rapid development of cross-border e-commerce.
Analysis of the development trend of cross-border e-commerce logistics
(1) Diversified cross-border e-commerce logistics model synergistic development with the development of cross-border e-commerce will increase more cross-border logistics needs, cross-border logistics is different from domestic logistics. Not only need to include domestic delivery, express delivery also need to include the entry and exit customs and commodity inspection, each link can not go wrong, which distribution is the focus, most logistics enterprises are with foreign local logistics companies to complete the distribution, which increases the cost of transportation, but also unfavorable to logistics enterprises after-sales. Cross-border e-commerce logistics is oriented to the world, the supply side and demand side are across borders, each country’s transportation situation and logistics facilities have differences, and even some countries have differences in the management of goods, so that the courier service requirements are higher, cross-border e-commerce logistics enterprises should not only have logistics capabilities, for the country’s customs and customs and logistics and transport laws and regulations should be familiar with, such as some countries for plastic bags are Prohibited, easy to cause the detention of goods, fines and other issues. Therefore, diversified cross-border e-commerce logistics mode of collaborative development is the future trend, can help cross-border e-commerce logistics enterprises to face more complex transportation and distribution links, to meet the logistics needs of cross-border e-commerce enterprises, but also through collaborative development to focus resources, the use of logistics resources to achieve cost reduction and efficiency of the logistics supply chain, such as the head of cross-border e-commerce logistics enterprises in foreign regions to form a set of logistics enterprises set, to achieve the region The logistics supply chain, logistics sites, distribution system, network technology and other resources are optimized and integrated, and then a perfect logistics system is formed.
(2) Cross-border e-commerce logistics presents diversified trends The initial development of cross-border e-commerce logistics is to meet the logistics transportation and distribution needs of cross-border e-commerce enterprises, cross-border e-commerce is not only the circulation between commodities in operation, but also the exchange of national culture and economy, therefore, cross-border e-commerce logistics will also present diversified trends in long-term development. First of all, the birth of 5G technology can realize the logistics storage and logistics transportation Intelligent development, the realization of intelligent services such as commodity transportation management, commodity quality management and information tracking, reduce the burden of cross-border e-commerce manpower, and improve the management quality service level of cross-border e-commerce logistics enterprises.
(3), with the construction of cross-border e-commerce logistics in the regional class of logistics supply chain, it is also able to expand the local express business. With the local express business to form a new economic point, is conducive to cross-border e-commerce logistics enterprises to further logistics set up supporting construction and the formation of a more complete logistics supply chain. Form a virtuous cycle and fully improve the efficiency of cross-border logistics. The rise and development of cross-border e-commerce has also brought new challenges to the development of cross-border logistics. Both from the level and from the enterprise level, we need to face the development opportunities and challenges with a positive attitude, start from the actual development state of cross-border e-commerce and cross-border logistics, innovate the development mode of cross-border e-commerce logistics with the economic characteristics of foreign trade, develop standardized systems and industry norms, and realize the pattern of coordinated development of cross-border e-commerce and cross-border e-commerce logistics.
Establishing credit evaluation model of third-party logistics enterprises
The credit evaluation system of the third-party logistics enterprise is to summarize all aspects of the third-party logistics enterprise, find out the many factors affecting the credit of the third-party logistics enterprise, and achieve a comprehensive evaluation, so that customers can have an understanding of its credit status.
(1) Analysis of credit factors of third-party logistics enterprises
1. Credit concept. The enterprise’s ability to repay capital and interest and the willingness to fulfill the contract normally are reflected by the credit concept, which is mainly reflected in three aspects, such as the quality of personnel, the structure of the team and the credit culture. Third-party flow enterprises not only need to provide customers with corresponding services, but also need to maintain quality and quantity in transportation, storage and other service aspects. So for some non-financial indicators, such as the quality of personnel’s education and honesty and trustworthiness, not only reflects whether the goods can be delivered smoothly, but also determines the image of the third-party logistics enterprise; the structure of the team refers to the enterprise’s internal institutional settings and staffing, which will reflect the efficiency of the logistics enterprise; the credit culture refers to the credit-related moral customs, ideology, *views and other aspects of the enterprise’s culture construction will also be reflected in it.
2. Credit ability. Credit capacity is mainly based on the information of the financial indicators of the third-party logistics enterprises as a reference, which can reflect the size of the enterprise’s business development capacity to a certain extent, reflected in four aspects, such as debt capacity, operational capacity, profitability and future development capacity. The enterprise’s ability to repay maturing debts or the degree of guarantee includes the repayment of short-term and long-term debts, that is, the enterprise’s debt servicing capacity, which can also be: the enterprise’s gearing ratio, current ratio, net debt ratio and its cash flow, etc.; the enterprise’s operational capacity refers to the extent to which the enterprise can achieve its financial goals through the combination of internal human resources and production materials based on the constraints of the external market environment. The enterprise’s profitability is usually expressed as the amount of revenue and its level in a certain period of time, including the return on net assets and the profitability of total assets, etc. The enterprise’s future development capability includes: the turnover rate of inventory, the turnover rate of accounts receivable and the turnover rate of total assets. The future development ability of the enterprise includes: the enterprise’s industry experience, the enterprise’s strategic planning and its system construction and **cycle, etc.
3. Credit environment. * The policy and market conditions provide the external environment needed for the development of third-party logistics enterprises, including here * the strength of the control and the competition in the market two indicators. The * regulation not only plays a role in the implementation of macro-regulation of the market, but also strengthens the transparency of information and effectively helps the logistics industry to establish a good credit system and regulatory system; market competition indicators reflect the market competition of third-party logistics enterprises.
4. The credit record of logistics enterprises. Third-party logistics enterprises are logistics service providers, the credit record is composed of the quality of enterprise services, customer satisfaction, the enterprise’s fulfillment of the contract, as well as the enterprise’s compensation for the accident. The customer’s recognition of the enterprise is reflected by the customer satisfaction index; the enterprise’s reputation is also reflected in the process of contract implementation with customers, the contract is well fulfilled will * greatly improve customer loyalty, word-of-mouth will attract new customers, and vice versa will cause the enterprise’s credit significantly reduced; and the enterprise’s accident compensation rate also reflects the different degrees of credit from a certain aspect.
(2) Establishing the credit evaluation index system of third-party logistics enterprises
According to the analyzed indexes, this paper constructs the credit evaluation system of third-party logistics enterprises (iii) apply fuzzy hierarchical analysis to credit evaluation of third-party logistics enterprises. The **relationship matrix is used to construct the fuzzy consistent judgment matrix, which solves the problem of consistency of judgment well, resulting in a significant reduction in the complexity of judging the relative importance of the target. Fuzzy hierarchical analysis is used to construct the fuzzy matrix. The following describes the main methods of constructing fuzzy matrix by using fuzzy hierarchical analysis method.
1.3 Returns and exchanges are difficult to realize because cross-border e-commerce is mainly based on single or small batches, with a wide and complex variety of goods, errors will inevitably occur in the delivery process, and the cost of customer returns is low, and returns and exchanges may occur at any time during the whole process of cross-border e-commerce transactions, and the ultra-high return rate is another important problem that restricts the development of cross-border e-commerce. The transaction mode of cross-border e-commerce will directly lead to a series of problems such as high number of return orders, long transaction cycle, damage caused by loading and unloading during transportation, customs and exchange rate risks, and delivery time cannot be accurately judged, thus producing reverse logistics of returns and exchanges, which is determined by the operational characteristics of cross-border e-commerce. As the orders that need to be returned and exchanged are scattered and distributed in various regions outside the country, it will further increase the difficulty of after-sales service completion. Cross-border logistics is time-consuming, intermediate links and procedures are cumbersome, and the reverse logistics of returns and exchanges is very difficult and more expensive to return to the country. The high cost of labor in developed countries in Europe and the United States, after converting the shipping costs according to the exchange rate, the transportation costs required to return may be several times the domestic price, the cost of time and logistics and transportation costs will be superimposed on the cost of even more than the value of the goods themselves. If encounter national holidays national vacation, such as Christmas, reverse logistics cycle is even longer, the growth of the return of goods time will increase the risk of breakage or loss, these are made cross-border e-commerce enterprises can not afford.
2 Measures to solve the current cross-border e-commerce logistics dilemma
2.1 Establish a cross-border e-commerce logistics alliance based on fourth-party logistics Fourth-party logistics is a supply chain integrator, which provides knowledge-intensive services such as finance, law, information technology, customs clearance and inspection on the basis of third-party logistics. The construction of cross-border e-commerce logistics alliance of fourth-party logistics can enhance the ability of enterprises to provide various services, which is the inevitable trend of the future development of logistics and transportation industry toward service diversification. Cross-border logistics enterprises can hardly gain a long-term foothold in the increasingly fierce market competition if they only rely on freight as a source of profit, however, gaining profit by providing services for customers can provide more opportunities for enterprises to gain substantial income.
2.2 Improve the modernized logistics and transportation system In order to alleviate the connection problems brought about by the differences in infrastructure standards in various regions, China’s cross-border logistics enterprises should actively develop intermodal transport business, communicate and cooperate with logistics enterprises in other countries, and jointly build transportation networks. As cross-border logistics is difficult to form a systematic network, the scattered cargo transportation will be inefficient and chaotic and disorderly among the links. In this process, it can play the role of a bridge to expand the construction of infrastructure such as railroad intermodal trains and road freight from China and Europe. Increase the number of direct flight routes and civil aviation schedules between regions with frequent trade flows to ensure the normal operation of enterprises’ foreign trade exports and cross-border procurement business. Through logistics network support, infrastructure pull, cross-border e-commerce enterprises can use cheaper and more convenient than traditional foreign trade enterprises to export goods to overseas, with a broader space for development. In addition, the need to play a guiding role to promote mutual benefit and win-win among enterprises. In addition to the large cross-border e-commerce enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises and individual sellers in China is very large, due to the lack of individual strength, these businesses can only depend on the e-commerce giants. For this part of the sellers, they have limited funds and slightly less capacity in all aspects, should play a guiding role, so that they are embedded in the logistics system of the e-commerce giants. This is a mutually beneficial and win-win development opportunity for e-commerce enterprises and the majority of individual sellers. As the deployment of business flow, logistics, information flow and other infrastructure requires a lot of financial and material resources, the majority of small and medium-sized enterprises rely on their own strength simply can not be completed, so only by the e-commerce giants to complete. On the one hand, small and medium-sized enterprises can use the logistics facilities and equipment of e-commerce giants to achieve further development; on the other hand, e-commerce giants as an intermediate platform can also be profitable. For example, Jingdong Purchase itself does not provide goods, but only acts as a platform provider to create online trading opportunities and conditions for buyers and sellers. Through the establishment of its own logistics and distribution system to improve the efficiency of transportation, with the information technology data mining and analysis to meet the needs of both sides, focusing on information flow and logistics as the core to establish a supply chain network.
2.3 Using “Internet+shared overseas warehouse” to realize transnational after-sale service Overseas warehouse refers to the establishment of warehouses outside of China, which is mainly used in the field of cross-border e-commerce, and can be divided into three stages: headway transportation, overseas warehousing and tailway distribution. Tail delivery means that according to the requirements of foreign consumers, choosing the suitable local distributor to complete the transportation service from the overseas warehouse, which can be used for the reverse logistics in after-sale service, shortening the transportation path and improving the efficiency of e-commerce service completion, with the help of the overseas warehouse, a part of the goods can be transported to the overseas regularly, turning the scattered cross-border logistics into bulk transportation in the past, and the after-sale reverse logistics only needs to be carried out in the country, saving Manpower and material resources. When consumers need to return goods, they can directly transport them from overseas warehouses in other countries, which can save freight and shorten the return period. However, this method has certain limitations and is only applicable to those goods that can be kept for a long time, have a long life cycle and are in great demand, such as daily necessities, cosmetics and household goods. However, there are problems such as large initial investment cost and difficulty in operation and management for self-built overseas warehouse, which cannot be built by small and medium-sized enterprises only by their own economic strength. According to the cross-border e-commerce after-sales service process, it is known that the cost of cross-border transportation is too high for consumers to return the goods and receive the second shipment, which is the obstacle that makes the return of goods difficult to achieve, and the cross-border e-commerce orders are single or small batch, and the LTL transportation cost is obviously higher than the whole truck transportation cost, so it is difficult to form the scale effect. Overseas warehouse is a major innovation of cross-border logistics in recent years, which can effectively solve the problems of high logistics cost and long transportation time of cross-border e-commerce. So the introduction of the concept of overseas warehouse can precisely be used to reduce the transportation time and cost of cross-border e-commerce reverse logistics and alleviate the current dilemma faced by cross-border e-commerce after-sales service.
1 Analysis of the competitiveness of cross-border e-commerce logistics channels of private enterprises Cross-border e-commerce enterprises are enterprises that use transnational and cross-regional e-commerce network information platforms to carry out B2C-like business.
These enterprises have the following characteristics:
First, the small scale of enterprises, simple composition and small number of personnel;
Second, the limited size of the enterprise’s capital;
3, the business model of enterprises is more flexible and can quickly adapt to various market environments.
The advantage of such enterprises is that they can adjust the amount of relevant commodity storage according to the market demand; the disadvantage is that such enterprises are relatively imperfect capital chain, insufficient financial strength and no independent storage supply chain. Usually, private enterprises often choose the logistics channels mainly for express delivery, postal parcels and special line logistics, etc.
1.1 Postal parcel competitiveness analysis Nowadays, many cross-border e-commerce enterprises often choose the postal parcel method for logistics distribution. Postal parcel mainly refers to relying on the postal distribution information network platform to make the goods in online orders delivered in the mode of personal item mailing.
Its main advantages are:
One compared to other logistics channels, its transport range is wider, more than enough to transport the goods to other logistics companies can not reach the place; two operation is simple, conducive to saving the seller’s time, the seller only needs to fill in some necessary documents in accordance with the relevant provisions, you can send the goods to the buyer.
However, there are more problems in the actual operation of the parcel: one parcel transport time is too long. Most of the transport time of postal parcels is determined by the length of the distance between the departure and destination, and the long customs clearance time will directly affect the buyer’s impression of the seller; secondly, the type of goods transported is limited. At this stage, the goods that can be transported by postal parcel are mainly some light industrial goods, such as electronic parts, clothing and food. But for some special goods such as liquid goods and powder goods can not be transported; Third, the ability to track the transport of goods is poor. If there is no additional registered number, the goods can not achieve real-time dynamic tracking.
1.2 Express competitive analysis of express delivery is a common channel of logistics at this stage, express delivery is mainly by large courier companies to deliver goods, have their own * intensive transport routes and logistics distribution system, these courier companies have the advantages of the region, such as UPS corresponding to North America, DHL corresponding to Europe, FedEx corresponding to Southeast Asia, TNT corresponding to the Middle East and Eastern Europe.
Their main advantages are:
A wide range of delivery. Courier in most countries and regions, its delivery atmosphere is also wider;
Second, convenient procedures, express business companies have a perfect delivery process, the seller just need to fill out certain documents in accordance with the provisions can be;
Three distribution efficiency, in most countries and regions, express delivery has a perfect delivery chain, fast customs clearance; three logistics information updated in a timely manner. Customers are able to inquire about their relevant goods within the time for real-time dynamic tracking. Its main drawback is the high cost of transportation,
which is unacceptable to many private enterprises.
1.3 special line express competitiveness analysis of the so-called special line logistics with third-party characteristics, is dedicated to the special country or region around the logistics channel model used. Dedicated express has the advantages of shorter transport time, fast customs clearance and lower costs, its main operating process is as follows: set up export warehouses in the main axis city of the location of foreign trade exports, and complete a series of internal work, such as: sorting, packaging and distribution of goods, etc., the goods going to roughly the same order a unified warehouse, and then unified sorting, delivery, so as to effectively cost, to ensure the timely delivery Effective. Although the special line express has more advantages, but its shortcomings are also more prominent, for example, the special line express transport range is more limited, at this stage mainly for Europe and the United States, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand, as well as some areas of Russia open.
2 private enterprises cross-border e-commerce logistics channel reasonable selection of relevant strategies through the above comparative analysis of cross-border e-commerce logistics channel competitiveness, we can find that the above four logistics channels have their own advantages, therefore, private enterprises in the relevant logistics channel selection must be combined with the actual situation of the enterprise.
2.1 enterprise alliance in order to better commodity logistics efficiency, to overcome the different shortcomings of various logistics channels, the relevant private enterprises can establish a cooperative relationship with some express enterprises, can be set up by agreement, according to the type of goods transported to special logistics lines. This mode of cooperation a private enterprise is unable to complete, therefore, the alliance between enterprises, together with the common enjoyment of this special logistics lines and related preferential policies, so as to continuously optimize the overall level of private enterprises. But this cooperation is only applicable to private enterprises gathered in the place, if the distribution of more scattered areas are not suitable for this mode of cooperation.
2.2 To pay attention to the application of special line logistics At this stage, some cross-border e-commerce platforms with strong comprehensive strength are opening special line logistics through various methods, so for some smaller and weaker private enterprises can use the special line logistics channels of cross-border e-commerce platforms. Such as the sale of goods can be carried out on these platforms, the use of cross-border e-commerce platform collection of logistics information system, through the domestic small package of goods shipped to the cross-border e-commerce port storage warehouse, and then the port of land according to the information platform to ship goods. These cross-border e-merchants often have strong information integration ability and can grasp the distribution of relevant commodities in a *short time, so as to make reasonable distribution and thus improve the physical level of enterprises.
2.3 overseas warehouse alliance because most private enterprises own strength and scale can not reach the corresponding level, several enterprises can join together through such as contracts, shareholding to form an alliance of overseas warehouse, and jointly establish cooperation with large foreign courier enterprises. The main purpose of the cooperation is to enable these enterprises to have a common overseas warehouse, send their own commodity information to this overseas warehouse, so as to complete the delivery of goods. Through the integration of resources of each enterprise can further improve its level of goods, thus improving customer satisfaction.
3 Through an in-depth study of the competitiveness of cross-border e-commerce logistics channels for private enterprises, we can find that the importance of cross-border e-commerce for private enterprises can not only improve the efficiency of commodity logistics, but also continuously improve the economic growth of private enterprises. In the actual operation of various logistics channels there are always problems of one kind or another, so this paper combines the actual situation of private enterprises at this stage, so as to put forward the relevant strategies for the reasonable selection of cross-border e-commerce logistics channels for private enterprises, hoping to continuously improve the level of private enterprises, and thus improve the economic efficiency of enterprises, and further promote the healthy and sustainable development of private enterprises in China.